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Russia in the Bible?
Our attention is centered upon Ezekiel 38. This chapter, which is often linked with Daniel 11, has been a particular focus for Bible students in all ages. And no wonder, for it is one of the most dramatic chapters in the Bible. It portrays God’s people of Israel gathered back to their own land in the latter days, and then being attacked by a large confederate army led by Gog of the land of Magog. The main invading force comes from the north. The AV says they come from “the north parts”, but more recent translations render this as “far north” or “the recesses of the north” or “uttermost parts of the north”.
Do Ezekiel 38 and Daniel 11 Refer to the Same Events?
A satisfactory and comprehensive understanding of Daniel 11:40-45 has hitherto been prevented owing to the generally accepted idea that this prophecy and that of Ezekiel 38 both refer to the same specified power, time and event; but in the opinion of several students of prophecy, this is by no means the case. In his “Exposition of Daniel,”¹ even Dr. [John] Thomas appears to have experienced some difficulty in reconciling these predictions.
(1.) The fifth son of Japheth (Genesis 10:2).
tū ́bal (תּוּבל, tūbhal, תּבל, tubhal; Septuagint Θόβελ, Thóbel, Codex Alexandrinus in Ezekiel 39:1, Θόβερ, Thóber): As the text stands, Tubal and Meshech are always coupled, except in Isaiah 66:19 (Massoretic Text) and Psalms 120:5. In the former passage Tubal is yoked with Javan; in the latter Meshech occurs in Psalms 120:5 and Kedar in Psalms 120:6. In Genesis 10:2 parallel, they are sons of Japheth. In Ezekiel (Ezekiel 27:13) the two are mentioned as exporters of slaves and copper, as a warlike people of antiquity (Ezekiel 32:26), in the army of Gog (Ezekiel 38:2 ff; 39:1). Josephus identifies them with the Iberians and Cappadocians respectively; but they are most probably the Τιβαρηνοί, Tibarēnoí, and Μόσχοι, Móschoi, first mentioned in Herodotus iii. 94 as belonging to the 19th satrapy of Darius, and again (vii. 78) as furnishing a contingent to the host of Xerxes. Equally obvious is their identity with the Tabali and Muski of the Assyrian monuments, where the latter is mentioned as early as Tiglath-pileser I, and the former under Shalmaneser II; both are described as powerful military states. They appear together in Sargon’s inscriptions; and during this entire period their territory must have extended much farther South and West than in Greek-Roman times. They are held (Winckler and Jeremias) to have been remnants of the old Hittite population which were gradually driven (probably by the Cimmerian invasion) to the mountainous district Southeast of the Black Sea.
Tu’bal, (Heb. Tubal’, תּוּבִל [תּבִל in Genesis 10:2; Ezekiel 32:26; 39:1], of uncertain signification; Sept. θοβέλ, except in Ezekiel 39:1, where Alex. θοβέρ; Vulg. Thubal, but in Isaiah 66:19, Italia). In the ancient ethnological tables of Genesis and 1 Chronicles Tubal is reckoned with Javan and Meshech among the sons of Japheth (Genesis 10:2; 1 Chronicles 1; 5). B.C. post 2514. The three are again associated in the enumeration of the sources of the wealth of Tyre Javan, Tubal, and Meshech brought slaves and copper vessels to the Phoenician markets (Ezekiel 27:13). Tubal and Javan (Isaiah 66:19), Meshech and Tubal (Ezekiel 32:26; 38:2-3; 39:1), are nations of the north (Ezekiel 38:15; 39:2). Josephus (Ant. 1, 6, 1) identifies the descendants of Tubal with the Iberians, that is-not, as Jerome would understand it, Spaniards, but-the inhabitants of a tract of country between the Caspian and Euxine seas, which nearly corresponded to the modern Georgia. Knobel connects these Iberians of the East and West, and considers the Tibareni to have been a branch of this widely spread Turanian family, known to the Hebrews as Tubal ( Volkertafeld. Genesis § 13). Bochart (Phaleg, 3, 12) makes the Moschi and Tibareni represent Meshech and Tubal. These two Colchian tribes are mentioned together in Herodotus on two occasions, first, as forming part of the nineteenth satrapy of the Persian empire (3, 94), and again as being in the army of Xerxes under the command of Ariomardus the son of Darius: (7, 78). The Moschi and Tibareni, moreover, are “constantly associated, under the names of Mluskai and Tuplai, in the Assyrian inscriptions” (Sir H. Rawlinson, in Rawlinson’s Herod 1, 535). The Tibareni are said by the scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (2, 1010) to have been a Scythian tribe, and they as well as the Moschi are probably to be referred to that Turanian people who in very early times spread themselves over the entire region between the Mediterranean and India, the Persian Gulf and the Caucasus (Rawlinson, Herod. 1, 535). In the time of Sargon, according to the inscriptions, Ambris, the son of Khuliya, was hereditary chief of Tubal (the southern slopes of Taurus). He had cultivated relations with the kings of Musak and Vararat (Meshech and Ararat, or the Moschi and Armenia), who were in revolt against Assyria, and thus drew upon himself the hostility of the great king (ibid. 1, 169, note 3). In former times the Tibareni were probably more important; and the Moschi and Tibareni, Meshech and Tubal, may have been names by which powerful hordes of Scythians were known to the Hebrews. But in history we only hear of them as pushed to the farthest limits of their ancient settlements, and occupying merely a strip of coast along the Euxine. Their neighbors the Chaldeeans were in the same condition. In the time of Herodotus the Moschi and Tibareni were even more closely connected than at a later period, for in Xenophon we find them separated by the Macrones and Mossynoeci (A nab. 5, 5,1; Pliny, 6:4, etc.). The limits of the territory of the Tibareni are extremely difficult to determine with any degree of accuracy. After a part of the ten thousand Greeks, on their retreat with Xenophon, had embarked at Cerasus (perhaps near the modern KerasAn Dere Su), the rest marched along the: coast, and soon came to the boundaries of the Mossynceci (Anab. 5, 4, 2). They traversed the country occupied by this people in eight days, and then came to the Chalybes, and after them to the Tibareni. The eastern limit of the Tibareni was therefore about eighty or ninety miles along the coast west of Cerasus. Two days march through Tibarene brought the Greeks to Cotyora (ibid. 5, 5, 3), and they were altogether three days in passing through the country (Diod. Sic. 14, 30). Now from Cape Jasoniurn to Boon, according to Arrian (Peripl. 16), the distance was 90 stadia, 90 more to Cotyora, and 60 from Cotyora to the river Melanthius, making in all a coast line of 240 stadia, or three days march. Prof. Rawlinson (Herod. 4:181) conjectures that the Tibareni occupied the coast between Cape Yasfin (Jasonium) and the river Melanthius (Melet Irmak); but if we follow Xenophon, we must place Boon as their western boundary, one day’s march from Cotyora, and their eastern limit must be sought some ten miles east of the Melet Irmak, perhaps not far from the modern Aptar, which is three and a half hours from that river. The anonymous author of the Periplus of the Euxine says (33) that the Tibareni formerly dwelt west of Cotyora as far as Polemonium, at the mouth of the Puleman chai, one and a half miles east of Fatsah.
Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog (/ɡɒɡ/; /ˈmeɪɡɒɡ/; Hebrew: גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) in the Hebrew Bible may be individuals, peoples, or lands; a prophesied enemy nation of God’s people according to the Book of Ezekiel, and one of the nations according to Genesis descended from Japheth son of Noah.
Japhetite (also Japhethitic, Japhetic) in Abrahamic religions is an historical obsolete term for the peoples supposedly descended from Japheth, one of the three sons of Noah in the Bible. The other two sons of Noah, Shem and Ham, are the eponymous ancestors of the Semites and the Hamites, respectively.
Magog (/ˈmeɪgɔːg/; Hebrew מגוג [maˈgog], Greek Μαγωγ) is the second of the seven sons of Japheth mentioned in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. It may represent Hebrew for “from Gog,” though this is uncertain.
Tubal (Hebrew: תובל or תבל [tuˈbal]) (Georgian: ??????) in Genesis 10 (the “Table of Nations”), was the name of a son of Japheth, son of Noah.