Bible Articles on the Topic of Trading

The following articles have been compiled and indexed by inWORD Bible software.

Tarshish: Two Places, One, or None?

Tarshish was a son of Javan (Genesis 10:4), a name which came to refer to the Phoenicians, with which Tyre was connected. The name may have come in later days to refer to any seafaring merchant power — either to the east or the west of Israel (cp. Jonah 1:3; Ezekiel 27:12; 1 Kings 9:26; 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21). Attempts to identify Tarshish with a single marine power — such as Britain in earlier days, or America in later times — always seem to run afoul of at least some of the Bible evidence. That Tarshish represents a Last Days power or powers is evident from Ezekiel 38:13 and Psalms 72:10. “Tarshish” appears in Ezekiel as an ally of “Sheba and Dedan,” to be broken by God’s power (Isaiah 2:11-17; 23:14). But later it will bring gifts to Christ (Psalms 72:10), including “thy sons” (Isaiah 60:9).

Market; Marketplace; Mart

mar ́ket, mar ́ket-plās, mart (מערב, ma‛arābh, סחר, ṣāḥar; ἀγορά, agorá): (1) Ma‛arābh, from a root meaning “trading” and hence, goods exchanged, and so “merchandise” in the Revised Version, “market” in the King James Version, occurs only in Ezekiel 27:13, 27:17, 27:19, 27:25, and is translated correctly “merchandise” in both the English Revised Version and the American Standard Revised Version. (2) Ṣāḥar means a “trading emporium,” hence, mart, and merchandise. It occurs only in Isaiah 23:3 (see MERCHANDISE). (3) Agorá, from root meaning “to collect,” means a “town meeting-place,” “resort of the people,” so a place where the public generally met to exchange views and wares. No doubt, the central place soon filling up, the people thronged the adjoining streets, and so in time each street thus used came to be called agorá, “marketplace”; translated “marketplace(s)” in 1 Esdras 2:18; Tobit 2:3; Matthew 11:16; 20:3; 23:7; Mark 6:56; 7:4; 12:38; Luke 7:32; 11:43; 20:46; Acts 16:19; 17:17; “Market of Appius” in Acts 28:15 means, probably, “street” (see APPII FORUM).


For a full list of the commercial terms used in the Old Testament, reference must be made to EB, IV, cols. 5193-99. Only the more important can be given here.