The following articles have been compiled and indexed by inWORD Bible software.
Matthew and Money
There are two extreme schools of thought as to the means by which the books of the Bible were composed. The one, which we might call the “dictation” school, implies that the authors were really no more than “secretaries” who wrote down, word for word, what God spoke to them. The other extreme declares that the authors compiled and arranged and edited various materials, part written and part oral, from many older sources. Since these sources were not necessarily “inspired” in any regular sense of the word, and since the compiler was at liberty to “pick and choose”, therefore the final result could scarcely be considered the infallible “word of God”. An “advancement” (?) upon this second school of thought is that the gospels, for example, did not take their final forms until some time in the second century, after later disciples “tinkered around” with their predecessors’ stories.
Pope Francis On Money
“Money sickens our minds, poisons our thoughts, even poisons our faith, leading us down the path of jealousy, quarrels, suspicion and conflict. It drives to idle words and pointless discussions. It also corrupts the mind of some people that see religion as a source of profit. ‘I am Catholic, I go to Mass, everyone thinks well of me... But underneath I have my businesses. I worship money’. And here we have the word we usually find in newspapers: ‘Men of corrupted minds’. Money corrupts us! There’s no way out.”
Why Jews Love Their Money
A fellow from Jerusalem just came to my door raising money for his family. He was a very friendly, talkative fellow. After I gave him my — unfortunately, rather small — donation and he was drinking his coffee provided by my gracious wife, he told me a dvar Torah [a word (or thought) from the Torah] which he said was his own original insight.
Parables On Money: Statistics
How many of Jesus’ parables are really about money? Below is a frequently quoted claims by preachers:
How Rich Are We?
The following is a transcription of a public lecture that was given by the author on August 2, 2015, in Richmond, Virginia.
Money In The Scriptures
The remarks in this paper are devoted to money, its definition, description and occurrence in the Bible. No attention is given to the exhortations and instructions concerning its use and possession contained in the Word.
The Rich Man and Lazarus
While of the tradition which forms the setting of this parable little is known, there can be no doubt as to the teaching which our Lord intended to convey through it. It was a direct reproof to the covetous Pharisees who, in deriding his statement that “Ye cannot serve God and mammon” brought upon themselves the denunciation:
“Lay not up for yourselves treasure upon earth.” The Lord’s teaching on how to live the New Life was bound to be seriously incomplete if it laid down no principles about a right attitude to money, for in the minds of millions money is the great reality in life.
Mammon of the World
“Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness.” (Luke 16:9)
Rich man and Lazarus
The parable of the rich man and Lazarus (also called the Dives and Lazarus or Lazarus and Dives) is a well-known parable of Jesus appearing in the Gospel of Luke.
Of uncoined money the first notice we have is in the history of Abraham (Genesis 13:2; 20:16; 24:35). Next, this word is used in connection with the purchase of the cave of Machpelah (23:16), and again in connection with Jacob’s purchase of a field at Shalem (Genesis 33:18, 19) for “an hundred pieces of money"=an hundred Hebrew kesitahs (q.v.), i.e., probably pieces of money, as is supposed, bearing the figure of a lamb.
dē̇-nā ́ri-us (δηνάριον, dēnárion): A Roman silver coin, 25 of which went to the aureus, the standard gold coin of the empire in the time of Augustus, which was equal in value to about one guinea or $5.25; more exactly £1.0.6 = $5.00, the £ = $4.866. Hence, the value of the denarius would be about 20 cents and this was the ordinary wage of a soldier and a day laborer. The word is uniformly rendered “penny” in the King James Version and “shilling” in the American Standard Revised Version, except in Matthew 22:19; Mark 12:15 and Luke 20:24, where the Latin word is used, since in these passsages it refers to the coin in which tribute was paid to the Roman government. See MONEY.
drak ́ma, (δραχμή, drachmḗ): The word is used in the Septuagint as the rendering of בּקע, beḳa‛, “half-shekel,” which must refer to the light standard for the shekel, as its weight was about 62 grains. In the New Testament the word occurs only in Luke 15:8, 15:9, where it is rendered “a piece of silver” (m “drachma”). It was commonly taken as equivalent to the Roman denarius, though not strictly so.
mam ́un (Μαμωνᾶς, Mamōnás): A common Aramaic word (ממון, māmōn) for riches, used in Matthew 6:24 and in Luke 16:9, 16:11, 16:13. In these passages mammon merely means wealth, and is called “unrighteous,” because the abuse of riches is more frequent than their right use. In Luke 16:13 there is doubtless personification, but there is no proof that there was in New Testament times a Syrian deity called Mammon. The application of the term in Matthew is apparent and requires no comment. In Luke, however, since the statement, “Make to yourselves friends out of the mammon of unrighteousness,” follows as a comment on the parable of the Unjust Steward, there is danger of the inference that Jesus approved the dishonest conduct of the steward and advised His disciples to imitate his example. On the contrary, the statement is added more as a corrective against this inference than as an application. ‘Do not infer,’ He says, that honesty in the use of money is a matter of indifference. He that is unfaithful in little is unfaithful in much. So if you are not wise in the use of earthly treasure how can you hope to be entrusted with heavenly treasure?’ The commendation is in the matter of foresight, not in the method. The steward tried to serve two masters, his lord and his lord’s creditors, but the thing could not be done, as the sequel shows. Neither can men serve both God and riches exalted as an object of slavish servitude. Wealth, Jesus teaches, does not really belong to men, but as stewards they may use wealth prudently unto their eternal advantage. Instead of serving God and mammon alike we may serve God by the use of wealth, and thus lay up treasures for ourselves in heaven. Again, the parable is not to be interpreted as teaching that the wrong of dishonest gain may be atoned for by charity. Jesus is not dealing with the question of reparation. The object is to point out how one may best use wealth, tainted or otherwise, with a view to the future.
kur ́ent (עבר, ‛ōbhēr, “passing,” Genesis 28:16; 2 Kings 12:4 (Hebrew: vs. 5)): The text and translation in 2 Kings 12:4 are uncertain and difficult. See the Revised Version margin. The reference is probably not to a money standard, but to a poll tax which was levied in addition to the free-will offering. Genesis 23:16 implies the existence of a standard shekel and also probably the use of the precious metals in stamped bars or ingots of an approximately fixed weight or value, a primitive coinage. Code of Hammurabi presupposes these pieces, and records in cuneiform writing discovered in Cappadocia indicate that shekel pieces with a seal stamp were in use in Asia Minor in the time of Hammurabi (Sayce, Contemporary Review, August, 1907, XCII, 259 ff). The existence of these pieces did not do away with the custom of weighing money, a practice which obtained in Israel down to the time of the exile (Jeremiah 32:10).
mun ́i: Various terms are used for money in the Bible, but the most common are the Hebrew כּסף, keṣeph, and Greek ἀργύριον, argúrion, both meaning silver. We find also קשׂיטה, ḳesīṭāh, rendered by Septuagint “lambs,” probably referring to money in a particular form; χαλκός, chalkós, is used for money in Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8; 12:41. It was the name of a small coin of Agrippa II (Madden, Coins of the Jews); χρῆμα, chrḗma, “price,” is rendered money in Acts 4:37; 8:18, 8:20; 24:26; κέρμα, kérma, “piece,” i.e. piece of money (John 2:15); δίδραχμον, dídrachmon, “tribute money” (Matthew 17:24 the King James Version, the Revised Version “half-shekel”); κῆνσος, kḗnsos, “census,” “tribute money” (Matthew 22:19).
pound (מנה, māneh; μνᾶ, mná, λίτρα, lítra; Latin, libra): Pound does not correctly represent the Hebrew māneh, which was more than a pound (see MANEH). The litra of John 12:3 and John 19:39 is the Roman pound (libra) of 4,950 grains, which is less than a pound troy, being about 10-1/3 oz. In a monetary sense (its use in Luke 19:13-25) it is the mna, or māneh, which was either of silver or gold, the former, which is probably the one referred to by Luke, being equal to 6.17 British pounds, or about $33 (in 1915); the latter 102.10 British pounds or $510 (in 1915). See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
skrip: A word connected with “scrap,” and meaning a “bag,” either as made from a “scrap” (of skin) or as holding “scraps” (of food, etc.). The King James Version has “scrip” in 1 Samuel 17:40 and 1 Samuel 17:6 times in New Testament; the English Revised Version has “wallet” in the New Testament, but retains “script” in 1 Samuel 17:40; the American Standard Revised Version has “wallet” throughout. See BAG.
tal ́ent (כּכּר, kikkār; τάλαντον, tálanton): A weight composed of 60 manehs (English Versions of the Bible “pounds”) equal to about 120 pounds troy and 96 pounds avoirdupois, or 672,500 grains, of the Phoenician standard. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. When used in the monetary sense the talent might be either of silver or gold, and the value varied according to the standard, but is probably to be taken on the Phoenician, which would give about 410 British pounds, or $2, 050 (in 1915), for the silver talent and 6,150 British pounds or $30,750 (in 1915), for the gold. See MONEY.
For money, as for weight, the shekel was the standard unit, the pieces of metal being either fractions or multiples of the shekel. The struggle between the Egyptian decimal system and the sexagesimal method of the Babylonians first made itself felt in regard to weights of gold and silver. The Phenicians were probably the mediators; and a mina of 50 shekels was established as a standard. According to certain indications, the relative value of gold to silver was as 10 to 1. Later, in consequence of the great increase in the supply of silver, the relative value was as 40 to 3. This may, perhaps, have affected the possibility of introducing the sexagesimal system.
Money, (Heb. כֶּסֶף, ke'seph, silver, as often rendered, Chald. כּסִף, kesaph’, Gr. ἀργυρίον, silver, or a piece of silver, as often rendered; also κέρμα, coin, i.q. νόμισμα, lit. a standard of valuation; χαλκός, brass, as sometimes rendered: and χρῆμα, lit. whatever is used in exchange). In the present article we shall confine our attention to the consideration of the subject in general, leaving the discussion of particular coins for the special head of NUMINSATICS SEE NUMINSATICS . The value of the coins is a relative thing, depending, with respect to the several pieces and kinds of metal, in part upon the ascertained weight (i.e., intrinsic value, for which SEE METROLOGY ), and in part upon the interchange of the mintage of various ages and countries prevalent in Palestine (i.e., current value; SEE COIN ); but, in point of fact. still more upon the depreciation of the precious metals as a standard of value in comparison with purchasable articles, arising from the fluctuating balance of supply and demand (i.e., mercantile value). In the. following discussion we give a general view of this extensive subject, referring to other articles for subsidiary points.
Coins in the Bible
A number of coins are mentioned in the Bible, and they have proved very popular among coin collectors.
Mammon /ˈmæmən/ in the New Testament of the Bible is commonly thought to mean money or material wealth and is associated with the greedy pursuit of gain. Jesus used the term mammon, “You cannot serve both God and mammon,” as a reference to Caesar, because it was Caesar who claimed on his tax coin he was a god. According to Jesus, Caesar was mammon, “god of money.” In the Middle Ages it was often personified as a deity and sometimes included in the seven princes of Hell.
Parable of the Rich Fool
The Parable of the Rich Fool is a parable of Jesus which appears in Luke 12:13-21. It reflects the foolishness of attaching too much importance to wealth.