Bible Articles on the Topic of Mark of the beast

The following articles have been compiled and indexed by inWORD Bible software.

Mark of the Lamb

Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees until we put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God. (Revelation 7:3)

666: The Number of the Beast

The number 666 is the number of the beast in Revelation, the last book of the Bible:

Written In Their Foreheads

When Jesus spoke to John on Patmos the servants of God were being persecuted for their belief; John himself had been exiled to the Island of Patmos for his defense of the Word of God. It would get exponentially worse in the centuries to come. Jesus’ words were sent to encourage, comfort, and bolster faith. He revealed to them events to come to pass from that day till he would return to the earth. Now there was trouble, but soon would come joy when He would stand again on this earth and with him an assembly of saints having their Father’s name written in their foreheads. As Jesus foretold, his servants would soon be caught up in an intense struggle against a powerful, deceitful and apostate religious system. This was to be a battle between the one true God and that man of sin. It was a battle for the minds of men. Where would their allegiance lie? Today the battle goes on; we too are involved in a struggle against sin. We might ask ourselves, where does our allegiance lie?

Tattoos and the Romans

Tattooing has long been seen as a form of body art, as well as a form of mutilation — depending upon your point of view. In the ancient world, tattooing was a common practice. The reasons why a person allowed themselves to be tattooed varied. Many did so for its artistic value, while others did so in order to commemorate an important event or to honor their particular deity. As well, whole groups often tattooed themselves with similar symbols in order to show their group identity. Tattoos where also seen as a permanent talisman that could protect the wearer from evil or give them strength. In some cultures, tattoos were also used as a form of medicine. For example, in some cultures it was thought that tattooing sore joints might ease the pain of arthritis.

The Ancient Uses of Marks

When the Lord called Israel out of Egypt and its idolatries and warned his people against the ways by which the heathen round about worshiped their gods, he gave commandment: ‘Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you: I am the Lord.’ Leviticus 19:28.

Branding Tamar With Fire

“About three months passed, and Judah was told, ‘Your daughter-in-law, Tamar, is behaving loosely, and, as a result, has become pregnant.’ Judah replied: ‘Take her out and have her burned.’” (Genesis 33:18)

Titan

“Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.” (Revelation 13:18)

Antichrist Tables

The Commentary on the Apocalypse is a book written in the eighth century by the Spanish monk and theologian Beatus of Liébana. It is a commentary on the New Testament Apocalypse of John or Book of Revelation. It also refers to any manuscript copy of this work, especially any of the 26 illuminated copies that have survived. It is often referred to simply as the Beatus.

Code of Justinian: Concerning Heretics

The Codex Justinianus (Latin for “The Code of Justinian”) is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign. The fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones (New Constitutions, or Novels), was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis.

Code of Justinian: Concerning Jews and Samaritans or Heretics

That Jews and Samaritans or heretics shall not be liberated from their curial condition on account of their religion, but that they shall indeed be subject to curial duties without enjoying the privileges of curials; that they may, however, give testimony against the orthodox who are subject to the curial condition, since they may also give testimony in favor of an orthodox state.²

Code of Justinian: Holy Baptism Not To Be Repeated

The Codex Justinianus (Latin for “The Code of Justinian”) is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign. The fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones (New Constitutions, or Novels), was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis.

Code of Justinian: Concerning the Hebrews

Concerning the Hebrews. (De Hebraeis.)

Code of Justinian: Concerning the High Trinity

The Codex Justinianus (Latin for “The Code of Justinian”) is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign. The fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones (New Constitutions, or Novels), was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis.

Code of Justinian: Concerning the Samaritans

The Codex Justinianus (Latin for “The Code of Justinian”) is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign. The fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones (New Constitutions, or Novels), was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis.

Code of Justinian: Concerning Women of Heretic Faith

Concerning women of heretic faith. (De mulieribus fide haereticia.)

The Spanish Inquisition

Host: Joan Neuberger, Professor, Department of History and Editor, Not Even Past Guest: Miriam Bodian, Professor, Department of History, University of Texas at Austin

Gematria in Revelation 13

One of the most contested topics in Revelation is the number of the name of the beast in Revelation 13:7. Purely intertextual interpretations have been popular among [many] writers taking a preterist, partial-preterist, or futurist view of the book...

How To Calculate The Number?

Question: This is perhaps the most famous prophesy in popular culture:

Church and State: Napoleon and the Superior Being

In terms of religion, Napoleon bordered between deism and atheism. I suppose you could say that Catholicism as a religion of salvation had little meaning to him. But, like Machiavelli, Rousseau, and Marx, Napoleon believed that religion was little more than the cement which held society together. Again, we are reminded of Marx when he remarked that “religion is the opiate of the people.” According to Napoleon, religion promoted national unity and prevented class war — it kept the people meek and mild instead of strong and independent. He made every effort to close the divide between the State and the Church, a divide created by the Revolution. The Temples of Reason (i.e., the churches) and the Cult of the Supreme Being, erected in the early 1790s, were too abstract for Napoleon. How could he expect the French common people to have understood them? So, his desire was to reconcile Church and State. Such a reconciliation would gain for Napoleon even greater approval of his people.

Policing a Religion

During the negotiations with the holy father [the pope], [Napoleon] Bonaparte one day observed to Bourrienne—“In every country religion is useful to the government, and those who govern ought to avail themselves of it to influence mankind. I was Mohammedan in Egypt; I am a Catholic in France. With relation to the police of the religion of a state it should be entirely in the hands of the sovereign.

Questions About the UPC and the New Testament

George Joseph Laurer developed the Universal Product Code in 1973. As an engineer at IBM, he was asked to develop the pattern used for the Universal Product Code. Over the years, many conspiracy theorists see in the UPC code the “mark of the beast” mentioned in Revelation 13:18.

The Mark of the Tau

Rab. Aha ben Hanina said: God said to Gabriel (Ezekiel 9:4), ‘Go and mark a Tau of ink upon the foreheads of the righteous, so that the angel of destruction may have no power over them. But mark a Tau of blood upon the forehead of the wicked, so that the angel of destruction may have power over them.’ Then the Attribute of Justice said to God, ‘How do the former differ from the latter?’ God replied, ‘The former are completely righteous, the latter are completely wicked.’ The Attribute said, ‘The former could have rebuked [prevented] the latter, and they did not do so.’ God replied, ‘I know that they would not have accepted reproof.’ The Attribute of Justice said, ‘Though you may know it, did the righteous know it?’ [This means that some responsibility rests upon the righteous for the sins of the wicked.] As it is said, ‘The aged, the young, the virgin, infants and women, shall ye slay for the destroyer, but to none shall ye draw nigh that has the mark (Tau) upon him, and with my sanctuary shall ye begin’ (Ezekiel 9:6). Rab. Joseph said: Read not ‘my sanctuary’ [mikdashi] but ‘my consecrated ones’ [mekuddashai] these are the men who have fulfilled all the Torah from Aleph to Tau (beginning to end) (cp. R.T. pp. 271, 272, 166, 167). (Sab. 55a.)

The Word “Reverend"

David says of God, “Holy and Reverend is his name.” All this name the Pope and his Clergy, “of every name and denomination,” for they are all his, though they quarrel with each other now and then, have taken to themselves; Holy Pope and Reverend Clergy, includes the whole of them. Thus they take the name of God in vain, When a young lad is ordained over a parish, or a church, you may see the older clergymen complimenting him in the pulpit, with “Reverend Sir,  Reverend and Dear Brother.” The ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY is “the Right Reverend Father in God;” and his Lord and Master THE POPE, was formerly addressed by the blasphemous title “Dominus Deus Noster Papa,” ‘Our Lord God Almighty the Pope‘!!!! How full of the names of blasphemy is the Kingdom of the Clergy! This Kingdom is symbolized in the Apocalypse under the figure of “a woman, sitting upon a scarlet beast, full of the names of blasphemy, having seven beads and ten horns.” And upon her forehead was her name written, “MYSTERY, BABYLON the GREAT, the MOTHER of HARLOTS (sectarian churches,) and of the ABOMINATIONS of the Earth,” (the diabolical doctrines of the Clergy) with which they have intoxicated the people, cajoled them of their substance, and imperilled their eternal weal.

Top 20 Reasons to Support Church-State Separation

“Prior to and during [John] Locke’s time, it was difficult to determine where religion or church left off and government or state began. The powers of both were often combined. As a result, churches frequently used the force of the state to promote and enforce their interests and doctrines. This caused horrendous atrocities against Jews and heretics, as well as the European religious wars between Catholics and Protestants of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that resulted in the deaths of millions of people.”

The Mark is the anti-Shema

John’s vision as seen in Revelation chapter 13 tells the story of a strange combination of two systems. A religious political power arises that demands the allegiance of the nations. What John sees is depicted using the earthly symbolism of Daniel’s animal visions. John sees two beasts empowered by a dragon. One of them represents national military power that conquers through violence. The other beast symbolizes the religious propaganda machine that exalts this power as divine. And the system created by these beasts demand full allegiance from the nations and that is symbolized by the taking of the mark of the beast and his number “six-hundred, sixty six” on the forehead or hand.

How Corporate America Invented Christian America

We’re often told that the United States is, was, and always has been a Christian nation. But in historian Kevin M. Kruse’s book One Nation Under God, one finds that the belief that America is fundamentally and formally Christian originated in the 1930s.

Prohibited by Justinian Law: Giving, Buying or Selling Anything or Making Contracts

The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis (“Body of Civil Law”) is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor. It is also sometimes referred to as the Code of Justinian.

Heretics

Book 16, the final book of the Theodosian Code, treats religion. The tenor and contents of this book give us a sense of how the imperial court refashioned its own religious authority in the centuries following the legalization of Christianity. Although bishops might attempt to subordinate the imperial house to episcopal authority, the emperors still maintained their role as guardians of religious equilibrium. So emperors convoked Christian councils and legislated on religion.

Those Persons Who Contend About Religion

Book 16, the final book of the Theodosian Code, treats religion. The tenor and contents of this book give us a sense of how the imperial court refashioned its own religious authority in the centuries following the legalization of Christianity. Although bishops might attempt to subordinate the imperial house to episcopal authority, the emperors still maintained their role as guardians of religious equilibrium. So emperors convoked Christian councils and legislated on religion.

LATEINOS: The Solution of St. John’s Enigma

Reginald Rabett in his long out-of-print work LATEINOS: The Solution of St. John’s Enigma gives evidence that the number of the Beast of Revelation 13:18 could only be 666 according to the testimony of ancient codices and manuscripts, and he refutes the claims of the 17th century Archbishop Laud and the Oxford Tractarian Dr. Pusey that it was 616. After dealing with various suggested alternatives of Hebrew, Arabic, Greek and Roman names whose numerical equivalents of their letters total the required 666, Rabett [in his publication] shows how LATEINOS only can satisfy all the conditions for this “number of a man.” The famous learned Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621) objected to the interpretation LATEINOS (traceable to Irenaeus, student of Polycarp the pupil and friend of the Apostle John) on the grounds that the word was never found with the diphthong ei, but only as LATINOS or LATINUS. Rabett triumphantly provides an illustration from the Vatican Library itself—whose very keys were in the power of the Cardinal—plainly showing the diphthong he denied in LATEIΝΑ!

Plan of the Apocalypse

Key to columns 2–9: Regular type face (Political), Italic type face (Ecclesiastical)

Adolf Hitler and the Mark of the Beast

Our colleague A.W. forwards a small item which he feels is worthy of a little niche and will amuse, if it does not interest some of our readers. The following little sum was circulating early in the year and Hitler’s phenomenal successes may be thought by some to lend confirmation to the scheme. We are to proceed as follows:—

The Spanish Inquisition

With this volume¹ the Home University Library of Modern Knowledge arrives at No. 158. Its steady progress indicates that the books are filling the demand for authoritative information on serious subjects. Prof. Turberville’s work is typical of the Library. It contains 238 pp. of well printed matter, with nearly five pages of bibliography, and six of index. It is not a mere summary or a digest of other works, but an entirely new and live work, which will serve either to satisfy a moderate appetite for knowledge or help the hungry one to obtain more.

Christ’s Outline of World Events in Revelation: The Image of the Beast

Before leaving Revelation 13 we must look at the other Beast—the “image of the beast”—as our quotation on the clock dial covers this and shows it is connected with Daniel’s prophecy. Daniel outlines the Fourth “terrible” Beast arising out of the Mediterranean Sea with iron teeth and ten horns: ‘'I considered the horns, and behold there .came up among them another little horn before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots; and behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man and a mouth speaking great things.”¹ It is generally agreed that this Fourth Beast represented Imperial Rome from B.C. 30, and its Papal development is again indicated by the blaspheming horn: “And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints, of the Most High, and think to change times and laws, and they shall be given into his hand until time, and times and the dividing of time.”² These three horns indicated below were “plucked up” by the blaspheming horn power in due course, and were clearly indicated by Daniel a thousand years before the event, as history has shown.

Theodosian Code: Title 1: The Catholic Faith (De Fide Catholica)

1. Emperors Valentinian and Valens Augustuses to Symmachus, Prefect of the City.

Theodosian Code: Title 11: Religion (De Religione)

1.² Emperors Arcadius and Honorius Augustuses to Apollodorus, Proconsul of Africa.

Theodosian Code: Title 4: Those Persons Who Contend About Religion

1.² Emperors Valentinian, Theodosius, and Arcadius Augustuses to Eusignius, Praetorian Prefect.

Theodosian Code: Title 5: Heretics (De Haeretics)

1.² Emperor Constantine Augustus to Dracilianus.³

Theodosian Code: Title 6: Holy Baptism Shall Not Be Repeated

1.² Emperors Valentinian and Valens³ Augustuses to Julianus, Proconsul of Africa.

Theodosian Code: Title 7: Apostates

1. Emperors Gratian, Valentinian, and Theodosius Augustuses to Eutropius, Praetorian Prefect.

First Baptist Church of Dallas Worships America

Sunday, June 26, 2017 — First Baptist Church in Dallas, Texas, bowed before a red, white, and blue altar yesterday.

How Barcodes Work

The Universal Product Code (UPC) is a barcode symbology that is widely used in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and in other countries for tracking trade items in stores.UPC (technically refers to UPC-A) consists of 12 numerical digits, that are uniquely assigned to each trade item. Along with the related EAN barcode, the UPC is the barcode mainly used for scanning of trade items at the point of sale, per GS1 specifications.

Read Scripture: Revelation 13

John’s vision as seen in Revelation chapter 13 tells the story of a strange combination of two systems. A religious political power arises that demands the allegiance of the nations. What John sees is depicted using the earthly symbolism of Daniel’s animal visions.

Arius vs. Athanasius

In a rare presentation, Richard Rubenstein, author and professor of Conflict Resolution at George Mason University, addresses a conference of One God believers in Atlanta. Rubenstein brings exceptional insights into the great Christian conflicts that surrounded the “Arian” controversy and particularly the council of Nicea in 325 AD. His message important for everyone with an interest in church history, the development of post-biblical Christian orthodoxy and/or conflict resolution.

Barcodes

When George Laurer goes to the grocery store, he doesn’t tell the check-out people that he invented the barcode, but his wife used to point it out. “My husband here’s the one who invented that barcode,” she’d occasionally say.

One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America

We’re often told that the United States is, was, and always has been a Christian nation. But in One Nation Under God, historian Kevin M. Kruse reveals that the belief that America is fundamentally and formally Christian originated in the 1930s.

The Spanish Inquisition

The Spanish Inquisition has cast a long shadow in the public imagination, with Inquisitors playing the role of villain on stage and screen. But what was the Inquisition-really? Established in 1480 to deal with heresies under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, the Spanish Inquisition was a highly regulated institution with enormous political and legal power whose influence reached all the way to the Americas for over three hundred years.

Forehead

for ́ed (מצח, mēcaḥ; μέτωπον, métōpon):

Gematria

(Gēmaṭrīyā'). A peculiar application of numbers which was in great favor with the later Jews and some of the early Christians and is not absolutely unknown to the Bible, is Gematria, that is the use of the letters of a word so as by means of their combined numerical value to express a name, or a witty association of ideas. The term is usually explained as an adaptation of the Greek word geōmetría, that is, “geometry,” but Dalman (Worterbuch, under the word) connects it in this application of it with grammateía. There is only one clear example in Scripture, the number of the beast which is the number of a man, six hundred sixty and six (Revelation 13:18). If, as most scholars are inclined to believe, a name is intended, the numerical value of the letters composing which adds up to 666, and if it is assumed that the writer thought in Hebrew or Aramaic. Nero Caesar written with the consonants nūnנ = 50, rēshר = 200, wāw = 6, nūnנ = 50, ḳōphכ = 100, ṣāmekhס = 60, rēshר = 200: total = 666, seems to be the best solution. Perhaps the idea suggested by Dr. Milligan that the 3-fold use of 6 which just falls short of 7, the number of sacred completeness, and is therefore a note of imperfection, may have been also in the writer’s mind. Some modern scholars find a second instance in Genesis 14:14 and Genesis 15:2. As the numerical value of the consonants which compose Eliezer in Hebrew add up to 318, it has been maintained that the number is not historical, but has been fancifully constructed by means of gematria out of the name. This strange idea is not new, for it is found in the Midrash on Genesis 43 in the name of a rabbi who lived circa 200 AD, but its antiquity is its greatest merit.

Mark

mark: In the King James Version this word is used 22 times as a noun and 26 times as a predicate. In the former case it is represented by 5 Hebrew and 3 Greek words; in the latter by 11 Hebrew and 2 Greek words. As a noun it is purely a physical term, gaining almost a technical significance from the “mark” put upon Cain (Genesis 4:15 the King James Version); the stigmata of Christ in Paul’s body (Galatians 6:17); the “mark of the beast” (Revelation 16:2).

Beatus Antichrist Table #1

mark of the beast

Beatus Antichrist Table #2

mark of the beast

Image of the Beast

mark of the beast

The Mark of the Beast

mark of the beast

The Mark of the Beast

mark of the beast

The Mark of the Beast

mark of the beast

The Number of the Beast is 666

Mark of the beast

Plan of the Apocalypse

Mark of the Beast

Religion and War

mark of the beast

666 (number)

666 (six hundred sixty-six) is the natural number following 665 and preceding 667.

Antichrist

In Christianity, the Antichrist (Greek: αντίχριστος, translit. antichristos; Hebrew: אנטיכריסט) or False Messiah (Greek: ψευδή Μεσσία, translit. psevdí Messía; Hebrew: משיח שקר) is generally regarded as a figure of evil that will falsely claim to be the Christ (Messiah). The term Antichrist is found in the New Testament five times in 1 John and 2 John, once in plural form and four times in the singular.

Barcode

A barcode is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode. Originally barcodes systematically represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or one-dimensional (1D). Later two-dimensional (2D) codes were developed, using rectangles, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns in two dimensions, usually called barcodes although they do not use bars as such. Barcodes originally were scanned by special optical scanners called barcode readers. Later applications software became available for devices that could read images, such as smartphones with cameras.

Codex Justinianus

The Codex Justinianus (Latin for “The Code of Justinian”) is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign. The fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones (New Constitutions, or Novels), was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis.

Corpus Juris Civilis

This article is about the Roman law codification of Justinian I. For the canon law codification of a similar name, see Corpus Juris Canonici.

Curse and mark of Cain

The curse of Cain and the mark of Cain are phrases that originated in Genesis 4, where God declared that Cain (the firstborn son of Adam and Eve) would be cursed for murdering his brother Abel. A mark was put upon him in order to warn others that killing Cain would provoke the vengeance of God, that if someone did something to harm Cain, the damage would come back sevenfold. Some interpretations view this as a physical mark, whereas other interpretations see the “mark” as a sign, and not as a physical marking on Cain himself. The King James Version of the Bible reads “set a mark upon Cain”.

George J. Laurer

George Joseph Laurer (born September 23, 1925 in New York, NY) developed the Universal Product Code in 1973. As an engineer at IBM, he was asked to develop the pattern used for the Universal Product Code.

Imperial cult

An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor, or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title), are worshipped as demigods or deities. “Cult” here is used to mean “worship,” not in the modern pejorative sense. The cult may be one of personality in the case of a newly arisen Euhemerus figure or one of national identity (e.g., Egyptian Pharaoh, Ethiopian Empire or Empire of Japan) or supranational identity in the case of a multi-ethnic state (e.g., Imperial Era China, Roman Empire). A divine king is a monarch who is held in a special religious significance by his subjects, and serves as both head of state and a deity or head religious figure. This system of government combines theocracy with an absolute monarchy.

Number of the Beast

The Number of the Beast (Greek: Ἀριθμὸς τοῦ θηρίου, Arithmos tou Thēriou) is a term in the Book of Revelation, of the New Testament, that is associated with the Beast of Revelation in chapter 13. In most manuscripts of the New Testament and in English translations of the Bible, the number of the beast is 666. In critical editions of the Greek text, such as the Novum Testamentum Graece, it is noted that 616 is a variant.

Radio-frequency identification

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader’s interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source such as a battery and may operate at hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).

Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:

Spanish Inquisition

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Spanish: Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under Papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The “Spanish Inquisition” may be defined broadly, operating “in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, and all Spanish possessions in North, Central, and South America.”