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A tunnel was constructed from the spring at Gihon — what is now called the Virgin’s Fountain — under the city walls and through the rock to the southern end of the city of Jerusalem, to the pool of Siloam. This would be a difficult feat in these days of sophisticated surveying and measuring equipment. It was even more remarkable for the times of Hezekiah, because the impending invasion meant there was very little time, and gangs of workmen had to start from either end. When the tunnel was complete, the spring outside the city was blocked up and the water flowed into the city.
The Siloam Inscription
It has been said by critics of the Bible that the records which we have of the reign of King Hezekiah are far too advanced in their description of the civilisation of his times for the period to which they are said to relate, and that the writing would have been more fitting had it been applied to the time of the Babylonian captivity. In particular, a verse occurring in the 25th chapter of Proverbs, which refers to the time of Hezekiah, has been criticised. In this chapter we have some of the proverbs of Solomon referred to, and the first verse describes how they came to be grouped together.
The Siloam Tunnel (Hebrew: נִקְבַּת השילוח, Nikbat HaShiloah), also known as Hezekiah’s Tunnel, is a water tunnel that was carved underneath the City of David in Jerusalem in ancient times. Its popular name is due to the most common hypothesis of its origin, namely that it dates from the reign of Hezekiah of Judah (late 8th and early 7th century BCE) and corresponds to the waterworks mentioned in 2 Kings 20:20 in the Bible. According to the Bible, King Hezekiah prepared Jerusalem for an impending siege by the Assyrians, by “blocking the source of the waters of the upper Gihon, and leading them straight down on the west to the City of David” (2 Chronicles 32).