The following articles have been compiled and indexed by inWORD Bible software.
Matthew and Money
There are two extreme schools of thought as to the means by which the books of the Bible were composed. The one, which we might call the “dictation” school, implies that the authors were really no more than “secretaries” who wrote down, word for word, what God spoke to them. The other extreme declares that the authors compiled and arranged and edited various materials, part written and part oral, from many older sources. Since these sources were not necessarily “inspired” in any regular sense of the word, and since the compiler was at liberty to “pick and choose”, therefore the final result could scarcely be considered the infallible “word of God”. An “advancement” (?) upon this second school of thought is that the gospels, for example, did not take their final forms until some time in the second century, after later disciples “tinkered around” with their predecessors’ stories.
Tarshish in the Bible
Tarshish is used as a name twenty six times in Scripture. It clearly does not have the same referent each time.
Money In The Scriptures
The remarks in this paper are devoted to money, its definition, description and occurrence in the Bible. No attention is given to the exhortations and instructions concerning its use and possession contained in the Word.
Old Testament Idiom: Tarshish
The Apostle Paul exhorted Timothy to “show himself approved unto God...rightly dividing the word of truth.” The Greek word translated “rightly dividing” signifies literally “cutting a straight line,” and appears to be a metaphor based on road making. Paul’s exhortation was that Timothy should follow the straight and undeviating line of truth in his exposition of the Scriptures, and there is a suggestion that any other method of exposition would meet with God’s disapproval, even though the ultimate object was the furtherance of the Gospel. In short, the end does not justify the means; the preaching of the Truth must be based on the manifest teaching of Scripture, and must not be sullied by the uncritical citation of Scripture texts wrested from their contexts on the pretext that the language of such texts fits one’s purpose, and seems to support the point one is trying to make.
Tarshish is Not Tarsus
In the Testimony for September, 1945, pp. 175-177, we explained some of the occurrences of the name Tarshish in the Old Testament, and stated that the word itself seems to be derived from Tartessus, an ancient port on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. We also suggested that several of the references to “Tarshish” applied to Tyre, the leading mercantile city of the world in the time of Ezekiel.
(1.) Hebrew: zahab, so called from its yellow colour (Exodus 25:11; 1 Chronicles 28:18; 2 Chronicles 3:5).
gōld (זהב, zāhābh; χρυσός, chrusós):
met ́al-ûr-ji: There are numerous Biblical references which describe or allude to the various metallurgical operations. In Job 28:1 occurs זקק, zāḳaḳ, translated “refine,” literally, “strain.” This undoubtedly refers to the process of separating the gold from the earthy material as pictured in the Egyptian sculptures (Thebes and Beni Hassan) and described by Diodorus. The ore was first crushed to the size of lentils and then ground to powder in a handmill made of granite slabs. This powder was spread upon a slightly inclined stone table and water was poured over it to wash away the earthy materials. The comparatively heavy gold particles were then gathered from the table, dried, and melted in a closed crucible with lead, salt and bran, and kept in a molten condition for 5 days, at the end of which time the gold came out pure.
mun ́i: Various terms are used for money in the Bible, but the most common are the Hebrew כּסף, keṣeph, and Greek ἀργύριον, argúrion, both meaning silver. We find also קשׂיטה, ḳesīṭāh, rendered by Septuagint “lambs,” probably referring to money in a particular form; χαλκός, chalkós, is used for money in Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8; 12:41. It was the name of a small coin of Agrippa II (Madden, Coins of the Jews); χρῆμα, chrḗma, “price,” is rendered money in Acts 4:37; 8:18, 8:20; 24:26; κέρμα, kérma, “piece,” i.e. piece of money (John 2:15); δίδραχμον, dídrachmon, “tribute money” (Matthew 17:24 the King James Version, the Revised Version “half-shekel”); κῆνσος, kḗnsos, “census,” “tribute money” (Matthew 22:19).
Gold, (Gr. χρυσός or χρυσίον, the last being prob. a diminutive of the former and more general term, and therefore expressing gold in a small piece or quantity, especially as wrought, e.g. a golden ornament, 1 Peter 3:3; Revelation 17:4; [18:16;] or gold coin, Acts 3:6; 20:33; 1 Peter 1:18; but also used of the metal generally Hebrews 9:4; 1 Peter 1:7; Revelation 3:18; 21:18,21), the most valuable of metals, from its color, lustre, weight, ductility, and other useful properties (Pliny, H.N. 33:19). As it is only procured in small quantities, its value is less liable to change than that of other metals, and this, with its other qualities, has in all ages rendered it peculiarly available for coin. There are six Hebrew words used to denote it, and four of them occur in Job 28:15-17. These are:
Wedge of Gold
Wedge of gold, לָשׁוֹן, lashon, Joshua 7:21,24, a tongue, as elsewhere rendered; more elliptically, כֶּתֶם, ke'them, Isaiah 13:12, fine gold, as elsewhere rendered). SEE GOLD.
The Booty of Jericho
Shekels of Gold
Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement
Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement were used primarily by ancient Israelites and appear frequently within the Hebrew Bible as well as in later Judaic scripture, such as the Mishnah and Talmud. These units of measurement are still an important part of Jewish life today. There is much debate within Judaism, as well as by outside scholars, about the exact relationship between measurements in the system and those in other measurement systems, such as the English units system used in the United States of America. Classical statements, such as that an Etzba was seven barleycorns laid side by side, or that a Log was equal to six medium-sized eggs, are so indefinite and vague as to be nearly useless. Nevertheless, the entire system of measurement corresponds almost exactly with the Babylonian system, and in all probability the Israelite measurement system was derived from the Babylonian, with some lesser level of influence from the Egyptian system. It may therefore be assumed that the relationship between the Israelite measurements and contemporary units is the same as the relationship between the Babylonian system and contemporary units.