The following articles have been compiled and indexed by inWORD Bible software.
"Word” and “Beginning” in John 1
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” (John 1:1, NIV)
Memra: God’s Creative Word Personified
Memra (= “Ma’amar” or “Dibbur,” “Logos”): “The Word,” in the sense of the creative or directive word or speech of God manifesting His power in the world of matter or mind; a term used especially in the Targum as a substitute for “the Lord” when an anthropomorphic expression is to be avoided.
The Divine Metonym: Ruah ha-Kodesh (the Holy Spirit) in Rabbinic Literature
Ruah Ha-Kodesh [the Holy Spirit: ruah = spirit; kodesh = holy] is but one of a number of personifications or metonyms¹ of divinity found in Rabbinic writings. In Rabbinic literature, divinity is referred to in various new ways that were not found explicitly in the Bible. In addition to Ruah Ha-Kodesh, there are the Shekhinah (Divine Presence), the Bat Kol [the Small Voice], and the Memra [the Word]...
The Word Spoken: God’s Determined Plan and Purpose
John writes about the Word as though it was something separate from God Himself. This helps us to see the way in which those attributes of God that have to do with the communication and expression of His purpose came to their fulfilment in the work of Jesus Christ.
Studies in John: The Prologue
The background of ideas, Gentile and Jewish, of the opening verses of John’s gospel, and some of the associations of the words he uses. The Old Testament shewn to be most essential to the understanding of his words.
The Word Made Flesh
The style of the fourth Gospel has little in common with that of the Synoptics. Luke’s narrative is avowedly historical in purpose (Luke 1:1-4), and the same purpose can clearly be seen in the gospel records of Matthew and Mark.