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Matthew and Money
There are two extreme schools of thought as to the means by which the books of the Bible were composed. The one, which we might call the “dictation” school, implies that the authors were really no more than “secretaries” who wrote down, word for word, what God spoke to them. The other extreme declares that the authors compiled and arranged and edited various materials, part written and part oral, from many older sources. Since these sources were not necessarily “inspired” in any regular sense of the word, and since the compiler was at liberty to “pick and choose”, therefore the final result could scarcely be considered the infallible “word of God”. An “advancement” (?) upon this second school of thought is that the gospels, for example, did not take their final forms until some time in the second century, after later disciples “tinkered around” with their predecessors’ stories.
Concerning Roman Imperial Coinage
Concerning Roman Imperial coinage¹⁴, it appears there was very little of it in Jerusalem at this time. Very few Roman denarii have been found there. D. T. Ariel¹⁵ in A Survey of Coin Finds in Jerusalem mentions only one Republican denarius, one of Mark Antony, one of Augustus and one of Tiberius. The writers of RPC¹⁶ state that Roman denarii were not made in Syria nor did they circulate there, and that the principal silver currencies in Syria, of which Judaea was part, were tetradrachms of Antioch and shekels of Tyre. If this is the case it is hard to explain how easily Jesus obtained a Roman denarius from the people when he made his statement, ‘Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God's’ (Mark 12:17), in answer to the question whether it is right to pay tax to Caesar. The most likely explanation is that the coin which Jesus held up to the people was not a denarius at all but a tetradrachm of Antioch. Because the writer of Marks’ Gospel was writing for a Roman audience who had never seen a tetradrachm of Antioch, he referred to the coin as a denarius.
Six Caesars Of The Tribute Penny
Sellers of ancient coins push out Roman denarii struck by Tiberius on the theory that these are the “tribute penny” mentioned in the Book of Matthew at 22:16 and Mark at 12:13 and Luke 20:22. They may well be. They are not the only candidates. In fact, they are not even the most likely.
Money In The Scriptures
The remarks in this paper are devoted to money, its definition, description and occurrence in the Bible. No attention is given to the exhortations and instructions concerning its use and possession contained in the Word.
Render Unto Caesar and Unto God
Conspiring men seek to entangle Jesus in His words. Rather than fall into their trap, Jesus teaches them that they are to respect civil authority and give unto “Caesar” those things that belong to his government, while at the same time acknowledging that there are some things that belong solely to God. Based upon the Gospel of Mark, chapter 12, verses 13-17.
dē̇-nā ́ri-us (δηνάριον, dēnárion): A Roman silver coin, 25 of which went to the aureus, the standard gold coin of the empire in the time of Augustus, which was equal in value to about one guinea or $5.25; more exactly £1.0.6 = $5.00, the £ = $4.866. Hence, the value of the denarius would be about 20 cents and this was the ordinary wage of a soldier and a day laborer. The word is uniformly rendered “penny” in the King James Version and “shilling” in the American Standard Revised Version, except in Matthew 22:19; Mark 12:15 and Luke 20:24, where the Latin word is used, since in these passsages it refers to the coin in which tribute was paid to the Roman government. See MONEY.
drak ́ma, (δραχμή, drachmḗ): The word is used in the Septuagint as the rendering of בּקע, beḳa‛, “half-shekel,” which must refer to the light standard for the shekel, as its weight was about 62 grains. In the New Testament the word occurs only in Luke 15:8, 15:9, where it is rendered “a piece of silver” (m “drachma”). It was commonly taken as equivalent to the Roman denarius, though not strictly so.
Denarius, (δηνάριον), the principal silver coin of the Romans, which took its name from having been originally equal to ten times the “as” (Pliny, 33:12), which was the unit. SEE FARTHING. It was in later times (after B.C. 217) current also among the Jews, and is the coin which is called “a PENNY” (q.v.) in the Auth. Vers. The denarii were first coined in B.C. 269, or four years after the first Punic War, and the more ancient specimens are much heavier than those of later date (Bockh, Metrol. Unters. p. 299, 469). Those coined in the early period of the commonwealth have the average weight of 60 grains, and those coined under the empire of 52.5 grains. With some allowance for alloy, the former would be worth 8.6245 pence, or 17 cents, and the latter 7.5 pence, or 15 cents. It has been supposed, however, that the reduction of weight did not take place till the time of Nero; and, in that case, the denarii mentioned in the Gospels must have been of the former weight and value, although the equivalent of the Greek δραχμή (Pliny, 21:109), or about 15 cents, is the usual computation (see Wurm, De ponder. mensura, p. 54). A denarius was the day-wages of a laborer in Palestine (Matthew 20:2,9,13; Tobit 5:15); and the daily pay of a Roman soldier was less (Tacitus, Ann. 1:17). In the time of Christ the denarius bore the image of the emperor (Matthew 22:19.; Mark 12:16), but formerly it was impressed with the symbols of the republic.
Bring Me a Denarius
Denarius of the Emperor Tiberius (1)
Denarius of the Emperor Tiberius (2)
Denarius of the Emperor Tiberius (3)
Denarius of the Emperor Tiberius (4)
Denarius of the Emperor Tiberius (obverse) (1)
Denarius of the Emperor Tiberius (obverse) (2)
Denarius of the Emperor Tiberius (reverse)
Is it Right to Pay Taxes to Caesar or Not?
Jesus & The Tribute Money
Render Unto Caesar
Study for ’The Tribute Money’
The Tribute Money (1516 oil)
The Tribute Money (17th c. etching)
The Tribute Money (Le Denier de Cesar)
The Tribute Money
The Tribute Money
The Tribute Money
The Tribute Money
Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement
Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement were used primarily by ancient Israelites and appear frequently within the Hebrew Bible as well as in later Judaic scripture, such as the Mishnah and Talmud. These units of measurement are still an important part of Jewish life today. There is much debate within Judaism, as well as by outside scholars, about the exact relationship between measurements in the system and those in other measurement systems, such as the English units system used in the United States of America. Classical statements, such as that an Etzba was seven barleycorns laid side by side, or that a Log was equal to six medium-sized eggs, are so indefinite and vague as to be nearly useless. Nevertheless, the entire system of measurement corresponds almost exactly with the Babylonian system, and in all probability the Israelite measurement system was derived from the Babylonian, with some lesser level of influence from the Egyptian system. It may therefore be assumed that the relationship between the Israelite measurements and contemporary units is the same as the relationship between the Babylonian system and contemporary units.
Coins in the Bible
A number of coins are mentioned in the Bible, and they have proved very popular among coin collectors.
In the Roman currency system, the dēnārius (pronunciation: /deː.ˈnaː.rɪ.ʊs/; pl. dēnāriī (pronunciation: /deː.ˈnaː.rɪ.iː/) was a small silver coin first minted about 211 BC during the Second Punic War. It became the most common coin produced for circulation but was slowly debased in weight and silver content until its replacement by the double denarius, called the antoninianus, early in the 3rd century AD. The word dēnārius is derived from the Latin dēnī “containing ten,” as its value was 10 assēs, although in the middle of the 2nd century BC it was recalibrated so that it was now worth sixteen assēs or four sēstertiī. It is the origin of several modern words such as the currency name dinar; it is also the origin for the common noun for money in Italian denaro, in Slovene denar, in Portuguese dinheiro, and in Spanish dinero.
Render unto Caesar
“Render unto Caesar” is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, which reads in full, “Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s” (Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ).[Matthew 22:21]
The tribute penny was the coin that was shown to Jesus when he made his famous speech “Render unto Caesar...” The phrase comes from the King James Version of the gospel account: Jesus is asked, “Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?” (Mark 12:14) and he replies, “bring me a penny, that I may see it” (Mark 12:15).