The following articles have been compiled and indexed by inWORD Bible software.
The Heavenly Tabernacle
The tabernacle built in the days of Moses was the center of divine worship in Israel. It was a figure for the time then present, indicating that the gifts and sacrifices being offered at that time — while good and righteous and from God — were not yet the perfect sacrifice, which was yet to come (Hebrews 9:9).
For Thee, Not For Me
It says, “Command the children of Israel that they bring unto thee pure olive oil for the light” (Leviticus 24:2). G–d says, “For thee, Moses, not for me, G–d. I need no light.” The table was at the north side of the Sanctuary; the light on the south side” (Exodus 26:35). G–d says, “I need no eating, I need no light.”¹
An Always Burning Lamp
“And you (Moses) shall command the Children of Israel (to) bring to you a clear, pure olive oil crushed for lighting, to lift and keep up an always burning lamp. In the Tent of Meeting... from evening until morning...” (Exodus 27:20-21)
The Coat of Arms and the Candlestick
Among many interesting literary heralds of the dawn of the coming great Day of the LORD is the publication Jerusalem, with which no doubt many of our readers are already acquainted. It is one of the organs of the Jewish Christian Community, and is published monthly by “Patmos,” Westcliff-on-Sea; communications to be addressed to The Secretary, Jewish Christian Community, 17 Higham Road, Tottenham, London, N.17. “Subscribers are free to contribute whatever they feel prompted to give.” The Community also publishes monthly organs, and holds Conferences and Bible Courses, in Germany, Switzerland and France. The address of the Jewish Christian Community in Jerusalem is: P.O. Box 1353, Jerusalem, Israel.
The Menorah: Its Historical and Symbolic Significance
We, are privileged in presenting herewith an article specially written for the Testimony by a “daughter of Zion” and friend of Britain, the protector of the Chosen People. Dr. Fraenckel-Auerbach’s researches extend to the fields of the History of Art and Architecture, and we are sure that her contribution will be of great interest to our readers. The opinions and deductions are essentially given from a Jewish aspect and they do not necessarily represent the views of The Testimony Committee. — A.E.J.
The lamp-stand, “candelabrum,” which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Exodus 25:31-40; 37:17-24, and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight.
kan ́d'l, kan ́d'l-stik (נר, nēr; λύχνος, lúchnos; מנורה, menōrāh; λυχνία, luchnía):
lamp ́stand (ניר, נר, ניר, nīr, nēr, לפּיד, lappīdh, Phoenician למפּד, lampadh, whence λαμπάς, lampás; λύχνος, lúchnos is also used): Nēr or nīr is properly “light” or “a light-giving thing,” hence, “lamp,” and is so rendered in the Revised Version, but often “candle” in the King James Version. Its use in connection with the tabernacle and the temple (Exodus 25:37 ff; 2 Chronicles 4:20 f), where oil was employed for light (Exodus 35:14; Leviticus 24:2), shows that this is its proper meaning. Lappīdh is properly “a torch” and is thus rendered generally in the Revised Version, but “lamp” in Isaiah 62:1, where it is used as a simile. KJV renders it “lamp” usually, but “torch” in Nahum 2:3 f; Zechariah 12:6. In Job 12:5 the Revised Version renders it “for misfortune,” regarding it as composed of the noun פּיד, pīdh, and the preposition ל, l. Lampas in Greek corresponds to it, but luchnos is also rendered in the RV “lamp,” while the KJV gives “candle,” as in Matthew 5:15 and corresponding passages in the other Gospels.
Mentioned as a secular object only in 2 Kings 4:10. The candlestick in the Temple, however, is frequently referred to, although there is no reliable definite information from earlier times concerning its use or its shape.
Candlestick, (מנוֹּרָה, menorah’; Chald. נֶברִשׁתָּה, nebrashtah’; Sept. and N.T. λυχνία, properly a lampstan 1, as in Matthew 5:15), the candelabrum which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, after the model shown him in the mount. Its form is chiefly known to us by the passages in Exodus 25:31-40; 37:17-24; on which some additional light is thrown by the Jewish writers, and by the representation of the spoils of the Temple on the arch (q.v.) of Titus at Rome, the only veritable monument extant of the kind (Prideaux, Connection, 1:166). It is called in Leviticus 24:4, “the pure,” and in Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 26:19, “the holy candlestick.” So Diodorus Siculus describes it (10:100, ed. Bip.) as “the so-called immortal light perpetually burning in the fane” (ὁ ἀθάνατος-λεγόμενος λύχνος καὶ καιόμενος ἀδιαλείπτως ἐν τῷ ναῷ).
Aaron and the Lamp (1966 lithograph)
The Gold Lampstand and the Two Olive Trees
Knesset Menorah (1956 bronze)
The Lampstand of Pure Gold
The Lamp of Aaron (hand colored etching)
Menorah in Jewish Synagogue
Menorah of Zechariah’s Vision (fols. 316v-317) (ca. 1300)
Samuel in the Tabernacle with Eli
Teruma (2008 watercolor)
Vayakhel (2008 watercolor)
Zechariah’s Vision of the Menorah (1300 illumination)
Zechariah in the Temple
The Hanukkah menorah, also chanukiah or hanukiah, (Hebrew: מנורת חנוכה menorat ḥanukkah, pl. menorot) (also Hebrew: חַנֻכִּיָּה ḥanukkiyah, or chanukkiyah, pl. ḥanukkiyot/chanukkiyot, or Yiddish: חנוכּה לאמפּ khanike lomp, lit.: Hanukkah lamp) is a nine-branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of Hanukkah, as opposed to the seven-branched menorah used in the ancient Temple or as a symbol.
The menorah (/məˈnɔːrə/; Hebrew: מְנוֹרָה [mənoːˈɾaː]) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and 300 years later in the Temple in Jerusalem. Fresh olive oil of the purest quality was burned daily to light its lamps. The menorah has been a symbol of Judaism since ancient times and is the emblem on the coat of arms of the modern state of Israel.