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Babylon = Assyria
In the Old Testament, “Babylon” and “Assyria” are sometimes used interchangeably of the same political power:
Babylon first came to prominence under Hammurabi (c. 1792-50 B.C.), who gained control of all southern Mesopotamia. It came under the shadow of Assyria from the ninth century until Nineveh fell in 612 B.C. As Assyria weakened, Pharaoh Necho sought to establish Egyptian influence in Syria to the north of Israel. He defeated Josiah at Megiddo in 609 B.C. (2 Kings 23:29), but was eventually defeated by Nebuchadnezzar at the Battle of Carchemish in 605 B.C. (Jeremiah 46:2), thus paving the way for Babylon to gain pre-eminence in the region.
Babylonia is a plain which is made up of the alluvial deposits of the mountainous regions in the North, where the Tigris and Euphrates have their source. The land is bounded on the North by Assyria and Mesopotamia; on the East by Elam, separated by the mountains of Elam; on the South by the sea marshes, and the country Kaldu (Chaldaea); and on the West by the Syrian desert. Some of the cities of the lower country were seaport towns in the early period, but now are far inland. This land-making process continues even at the present time at the rate of about 70 ft. a year.
ē ́lam, ē ́lam-īts (עילם, ‛ēlām; Αἰλάμ, Ailám; Jeremiah 49:36. Codex Sinaiticus (the original scribe) reads Ἐλάμ
Babylonia, (Βαβυλωνία), a name for the southern portion of Mesopotamia, constituting the region of which Babylon was the chief city. The latter name alone is occasionally used in Scripture for the entire region; but its most usual designation is CHALDEA SEE CHALDEA (q.v.). The Chaldaeans proper, or Chasdim, however, were probably originally from the mountainous region farther north, now occupied by the Kurds (with which name, indeed, many find an etymological connection; see Golius, ad Alfrag. p. 17; Rodiger, in the Zeitschr. f. d. Kunde d. Morgenl. 3, 8), a portion of whom under the Assyrian sway may have migrated into Mesopotamia (see Isaiah 23:13), and thus eventually became masters of the rich plain of Shinar (see Vitringa, ad Jesa. 1:412 sq.; Gesenius, art. Chaldaer, in Ersch and Gruber’s Encycl.). The original inhabitants nevertheless appear to have been of the Shemitic family (see Adelung, Mithridat. 1:314 sq.; Olshausen, Emend. zum A. T. p. 41 sq.); and their language belonged to the class of tongues spoken by that race, particularly to the Aramaic branch, and was indeed a dialect similar to that which is now called the Chaldee. SEE ARAMAEAN LANGUAGE; SEE CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. The two words, Babylonia and Chaldaea, were, however, sometimes used in another signification; Babylonia, as containing in an extended sense Assyria also and Mesopotamia, nearly all the countries which Assyria in its widest meaning embraced; while Chaldaea indicated, in a narrower signification, the south-western part of Babylonia between the Euphrates and Babylon (Strabo, 16; Ptol.). In Hebrew, Babylonia bore the name of SHINAR SEE SHINAR (q.v.), or “the land of Shinar;” while “Babylon” (Psalms 137:1) and “the land of the Chaldaeans” (Jeremiah 24:5; Ezekiel 12:13) seem to signify the empire of Babylon. It is in the latter sense that we shall here treat it. SEE CHALDAEANS.
Map of Mesopotamia
Description: Map of MesopotamiaArtist: UnknownLegal: Image is in the public domain.Save image to disk
Babylon (m m6 m m0-m m:m m6 Akkadian: Bābili or Babilim; Arabic: X(X'X(Y, Bābil) was a major city of ancient Mesopotamia in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The city was built upon the Euphrates and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river’s seasonal floods. Babylon was originally a small Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor city of Babylon. Babylon greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called Māt Akkadī “the country of Akkad” in the Akkadian language.
Mesopotamia (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/, Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία “[land] between rivers” from Ancient Armenian ???????? (Mijagetq); Arabic: بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; Kurdish: میزۆپۆتامیا Persian: میانرودان miyān rodān; Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain “land of rivers”) is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq plus Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.