Bible Articles on the Topic of Adonai

The following articles have been compiled and indexed by inWORD Bible software.


There is almost universal consensus among scholars today that the sacred Tetragrammaton (YHWH) is to be vocalized and pronounced Yahweh. Probably the name means literally “He is.” Some argue, somewhat philosophically or metaphysically, that it presents God as the eternal self-existent One — the absolute, unchanging God (the eternal I AM — Exodus 3:13-15; cf. John 8:58). To them the name connotes the underived and independent existence of God.

Confusing the Two Lords of Psalms 110:1

This magazine deliberately urges believers to think deeply about the identities of the Son of God, Jesus, and of God, who is the God and Father of Jesus. We encourage a complete rethinking of traditional Christology in the light of the all-important oracle provided by Psalms 110:1. This verse is precious to New Testament writers. It is a star witness, summoned over and over again in the New Testament. New Testament writers of Scripture quote it or allude to it more than any other text of the Hebrew Scriptures, by far. They wanted the voice of Jesus to be heard, since it was Jesus who silenced all objectors by citing the divine oracle of Psalms 110:1. Jesus loved this Psalm because his Father’s amazing immortality plan was revealed in it.

Mighty God

“Mighty God” was to be one of the titles borne by the virgin’s son who, centuries after Isaiah’s day, was to be the manifestation of God in Israel—Immanuel, God with us. In the ocean of controversy and strife that rolls round his name, according to his express prophecy, we are safe only in holding fast by his own exposition of the things of God. The root of it all is his doctrine of the Unity and Supremacy of the Father: “The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord: and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart” (Mark 12:29). Mosaic, prophetic and Messianic teaching all agree in this first principle of all things; and the Scriptures can never be successfully accommodated to a Trinitarian exegesis that utterly rejects it.

Fear of the Name

The Jews have had a strange fear of speaking or writing the sacred name. We may well call it strange, for it has led to a perverse alteration of the text of Scripture and even to a deliberate mispronunciation of the name itself. In their rendering of the prophets, a more ordinary word has been used instead of the name by which God made Himself known to Moses. Surely this may well be called a strange fear. Among men the deliberate mispronunciation of a name is regarded as offensive. No man would ever be offended by the correct use of the name he had proclaimed asi properly belonging to him. It is surprising that the Jews should fear to utter the name God had chosen for Himself and still more surprising that they should dare to mutilate it.

From Adonai to Yahweh: A Glossary of God’s Names

This alphabetical list includes the most—and least—frequently occurring names found in the Hebrew Bible or in major English translations such as the King James Version (KJV) and the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV).

"Elohim” Is Not a Name

In Genesis 2, God opened up a new period in His dealings with man, there being revealed not only as Elohim (God), but as “JEHOVAH-Elohim”—“the LORD God,” revealing personal interest by the use of a personal name.

"Lord” and “LORD” in the Old Testament

The words “lord,” “Lord,” and “LORD” in our English Bibles are translated from some twelve different words. (See Young’s Analytical Concordance.) Those of most interest to the reader are: Adon, Adonai, JEHOVAH, and JAH.

Names and Characteristics of God

Jehovah is the first personal name of God recorded in the Scriptures, and there are several points of interest from the commencement of its use.

John Milton: the Unrecognized Hebrew Language Student

Because of the love of the English for the Bible, the Jews and their language have been objects of interest and study in England more perhaps than in any other country. This is noted in Sokolow’s History of Zionism, and a few years ago was more thoroughly treated in one of the pamphlets issued by the Zionist organisation, British Projects for the Restoration of the Jews. In this, popular interest in the Jews and the Hebrew Language is traced from the 16th century down to our time.

The Tetragrammaton: A Special Name for the God of the Jewish People

In the Old Testament is found a special name for the God of the Jewish people, which from earliest times was spelled with four letters, and hence has been called the tetragrammaton. The pronunciation of the original name is not now known, since Hebrew writing contained only the consonants until many centuries after it had ceased to be a living language. This name, transcribed into the nearest English equivalent letters is YHWH, and a shortened form of it, which is contained in many compounds used as personal names, is also used alone, mainly in poetry, as YH.

Why God Has So Many Names

When the prophet Jonah, on a ship in the Mediterranean, was asked by his fellow travelers who he was, he answered: “I am a Hebrew. I worship the Lord, the God of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land” (Jonah 1:9). From this passage, it is clear that the Hebrews referred to their God as both “God” (Hebrew, Elohim) and “the Lord” (Yahweh). Elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible, God is called Adonai (also translated as “Lord”);¹ El and Eloah (also rendered as “God”); Shaddai, traditionally translated as “the Almighty”; El Elyon, the “Upper God” or “Most High”; and Yahweh Elohim, the “Lord God”—to name just a few of God’s names (see Glossary, p. 51).

Word Study: YHWH—"LORD"

For thousands of years Jewish people have daily prayed these words which summarize the Bible’s call for faithfulness and devotion to God. We will explore all of the key words in this prayer and what they meant in their original language and historical context.


Kyrios or kurios (Ancient Greek: κύριος) is a Greek word which is usually translated as “lord” or “master”. In religious usage, it is sometimes translated as “God.” It is used in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament. Kyrios appears about 740 times in the New Testament, usually referring to Jesus, not as “God,” but as “Master” (authoritarian head).

The Spelling of the Tetragrammaton

The spelling of the Tetragrammaton and connected forms in the Masoretic Hebrew text (vowel points in red):


The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning “[consisting of] four letters,”) is the Hebrew theonym יהוה, commonly transliterated into Latin letters as YHWH. It is one of the names of God used in the Hebrew Bible. The name may be derived from a verb that means “to be,” “to exist,” “to cause to become,” or “to come to pass”.


a-dō ́nī, ad-ō-nā ́ī (אדני, ‘ădhōnāy): A Divine name, translated “Lord,” and signifying, from its derivation, “sovereignty.” Its vowels are found in the Massoretic Text with the unpronounceable tetragrammaton יהוה, YHWH; and when the Hebrew reader came to these letters, he always substituted in pronunciation the word “‘ădhōnāy̌.” Its vowels combined with the tetragrammaton form the word “Yahweh (Jehovah).” See GOD, NAMES OF.

God, Names of

To an extent beyond the appreciation of modern and western minds the people of Biblical times and lands valued the name of the person. They always gave to it symbolical or character meaning.

Lord, The Lord

lôrd, This English word in our Bible represents one Aramaic, 3 Greek and 9 Hebrew words, two of them in two forms. It thus expresses all grades of dignity, honor, and majesty. It is not always possible to be sure of the sense in which the term is to be taken. In Genesis 18:3; 19:18, the translators waver between interpreting of the Divine Person and a finite angel (compare marginal readings). It represents the most sacred Hebrew name for God, as their covenant God, Yāh, Yahweh, and the more usual designation of Deity, ‘Ădhōnāy, ‘Ādhōn, a term which they adopted to avoid pronouncing the most holy designation. They had placed on Leviticus 24:16 an interpretation that aroused such a dread that they seldom dared use the name at all. When two of the words usually translated “Lord,” both referring to God, occur together, the King James Version renders “Lord God,” and the American Standard Revised Version “Lord Yahweh.” The American Standard Revised Version has adopted the rule of using the covenant name transliterated, instead of the term “Lord,” in which the King James Version adopts the rule of the Hebrews to avoid the holy name.


Ad’onai, (Heb. Adonay’, אֲדֹנָי, prob. my master, in the plural form for the sake of intensity; see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 329; Sept. Κύριος, Vulg. Dominus, Auth. Vers. “Lord,” not in small capitals; but “God,” when that term has just preceded as a translation of Jehovah), a term employed in the Hebrews Scriptures by way of eminence to God, especially (in the Pentateuch always) where he is submissively or reverently addressed in his character of sovereign; frequently with other titles added. SEE JEHOVAH. The simple form אָדוֹן, Adon’ (either with or without suffixes), is spoken of an owner or possessor in general, e.g. of property (1 Kings 16:21), of slaves (Genesis 24:14,27; 39:2,7); hence, of kings, as rulers over their subjects (Isaiah 26:13), and of husbands, as lords of their wives (Genesis 18:12); also of God, as proprietor of the world (Joshua 3:13; Exodus 23:17; Psalms 114:7). It is also used of a ruler or governor (Genesis 14:8); and hence as a title of respect in addressing, e.g. a father (Genesis 31:35), a brother (Numbers 12:11), a royal consort (1 Kings 1:17-18), and especially kings or nobles (2 Samuel 14:9; 1 Kings 3:17). The plural is employed in a similar manner. The distinctive form, Adonai, never has the article; it is twice applied by God to himself (Job 28:28, where, however, many copies have “Jehovah;” Isaiah 8:7, where, however, the expression may be only the prophet’s); a circumstance that may have arisen from the superstition of the Jews, who always point the sacred name Jehovah with its vowels, and even substitute it for that name in reading, so that in some cases it appears to have supplanted it in the text (Daniel 9:3,7-9,15-16,19). It seems to have been written peculiarly (אֲדֹנָי) to distinguish it from the regular form (אֲדֹנִי), which nevertheless occurs in its ordinary sense, once with a plural sense (Genesis 19:2), but elsewhere as a singular (Genesis 18:3; 19:8). See LORD.


Lord, is the rendering in the A.V. of several Heb. and Greek words, which have a very different import from each other. “Lord” is a Saxon word signifying ruler or governor. In its original form it is hlaford, which, by dropping the aspiration, became laford, and afterwards, by contraction, lord.


Tetragrammaton, (τέτταρα, four, and γράμμα, letter), a term to designate the sacred name of the Deity, Jehovah, in four letters, יהוה. By the possession of this name the early Jewish opponents of Christianity declared that the miracles of Christ were performed. Tile mystical word Om of the Buddhists of India and Thibet is supposed to possess similar virtues to the present day.


Adon literally means “lord.” Adon has an uncertain etymology, although it is generally believed to be derived from the Ugaritic ad, “father.”


Jehovah (/dʒᵻˈhoʊvə/ jə-HOH-və) is a Latinization of the Hebrew יְהֹוָה, one vocalization of the Tetragrammaton יהוה (YHWH), the proper name of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible.

Names of God in Judaism

The name of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (Hebrew: יהוה). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as “the Lord” owing to the Jewish tradition of reading it as (“My Lords”) out of respect.